The alkyl derivatives of ammonia are called amine. In other words, the compounds that are obtained when the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule are replaced by an equal number of alkyl groups. They are called amine.
They are divided into three classes based on the number of alkyl groups associated with the nitrogen atom in amines.
The primary amines have only one alkyl group attached to the nitrogen atom, the secondary amines have two alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom and the tertiary amines have three alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom.
Nomenclature of amines
In the simplest method, amine is named based on the name of the alkyl group combined with the nitrogen atom. To write the common name of an amine, we append the attached amine to the end of the alkyl group name.
If two or three different alkyl groups are present in amine, then the name of the small alkyl group is written first and the name of the large alkyl group is written later.
In the IUPAC method, amines are named based on the name of the corresponding alkane. To write the IUPAC name of the primary amines, append the appended amine to the end of the corresponding alkane name, write the entire name of the compound as a single word and display the carbon atom carrying the amine group by the appropriate number.
The IUPAC names of secondary and tertiary amines are written in a similar way, but N — alkyl and N also use N–di alkyl precursors to indicate the presence of other alkyl groups.
Following are the common and IUPAC names of some amines.
CH3NH2 methyl amine Methylamine
CH3CH2NH2 Ethyl Amine Ethylamine
CH3CH2CH2NH2 n-propyl amine 1-Propanamine
(CH3)2CHNH2 iso-propyl amine 2-Propanamine
CH3-NH-CH3 Dimethylamine N-Methylmethanamine
CH3-NH-C2H5 Methylethylamine N-Methyl Ethylamine
(CH3)3N tri-methyl amine N,N-Dimethylmethanamine
Isomerism in amines:
Amines compounds mainly exhibit three types of isomerism.
Chain isomerism: This type of isomerism is caused by the differing chain structure of carbon atoms.
Position isomerism: This type of isomerism occurs because of the location of the amines group in the chain of carbon atoms.
Metamerism: This type of isomerism is caused by the variation of the size of the groups connected on both sides of the same nitrogen atom.