By oxidation of alcohol: Oxidation of primary alcohol to aldehyde and secondary alcohol to form ketone.
R — CH2OH → R — CHO + H2O
H.CH2OH (methyl alcohol) → HCHO + H2O
CH3.CH2OH (ethyl alcohol) → CH3.CHO + H2O
R — CHOH — R’ → R…
Artificial Sweetener : The Artificial Sweeteners are another type of food additives. The first popular artificial sweetener was saccharin. It was marketed as its water soluble sodium or calcium salt. Saccharin is approximately 300 times sweeter than can sugar. It has proved to be a lifesaver for countless diabetics and is of great value to people who need to control intake of calories.
Besides saccharin, the other commonly marketed Artificial Sweeteners are described here.
Aspartame is unstable at cooking temperatures, limiting its use as a sugar substitute to cold foods and soft drinks. Alitame is more stable than aspartame during cooking.
Ozone Structure : Ozone is made from oxygen and only oxygen is obtained when ozone is heated. This proves that it contains only oxygen atoms. Its vapor density is 24 and its molecular weight is 48. On this basis its molecular formula is O3.
The following experiments have been done…
In 1919 sommerfeld presented a modified and elaborated version of Bohr’s atomic model. The fine structure of the hydrogen emission lines of the structure is of fine structure.
To explain this, Sommerfeld suggested that it is not necessary that all the electrons of the same…
In other words, atoms whose atomic numbers are the same but different mass numbers are called isotopes of each other.
Since the mass of an atom and its atomic weight are approximately equal. Therefore, the above definition of isotopes can also be written as this — atoms whose atomic numbers…
Formaldehyde gives all the normal tests of the aldehyde group. It gives pink color with schiff reagent, silver mirror with tollan reagent and red precipitate with fehling solution.
Specific testing of formaldehyde is as follows.
A drop of 0.5% aqueous resorcinol solution is found in 1 ml of dilute aqueous…
When the -CHO group is attached to a hydrogen or carbon atom, it is called an aldehyde group. And the related compound is called aldehyde.
Example: -CHO group in HCHO is associated with H, so it contains…
Toluene: benzaldehyde is obtained from oxidation of toluene by chromyl chloride CrO2Cl2. This reaction is called Etard’s Reaction.
C6H5CH3 + 2CrO2Cl2 → C6H5CH(OCrOHCl2)2 → C6H5CHO
Benzaldehyde is also obtained by oxidation of acidic solution of toluene’s manganese dioxide MnO₂. …
Laboratory method: from tin and HCl reduction of nitrobenzene: in the laboratory, aniline is made by the reduction of nitrobenzene by tin and HCl.
Sn + 4HCl → SnCl4 + 4H
C6H5NO2 + 6H → C6H5NH2 + 2H2O
Industrial manufacturing: from ioran and HCl reduction of nitrobenzene: Anealin is made…